A Step-by-Step Approach on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – CPR

Injuries that a person can obtain in his area of work vary with the nature and the hazards involved in it. Whatever the nature of the illness of injury, the immediate and rapid administration of emergency treatment is important so that complications will be prevented and lives saved. The following article will focus on treatment given during emergency situations, using CPR as an example.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (or CPR) is an emergency procedure performed to regain oxygen supply to the brain. It is usually done on cases of cardiac arrest or loss of spontaneous breathing. It is composed of repetitive steps of chest compressions (as a way to manually pump the blood from the heart) and ventilation (forcefully exhaling air into the patient’s mouth). Before, CPR is done using the ABC (airway, breathing, circulation) method; researches had found that CAB (circulation, airway, and breathing) would be beneficial since chest compressions alone can already be lifesaving.

During an emergency, the rescuer’s priorities are to assess the situation (number of casualties, extent of the injury), to keep the area safe and to send for help. After accomplishing these primary tasks, the rescuer is now ready to administer first-aid to the injured persons.

Place the person on his back on the floor or a hard surface. If possible, prevent from unnecessarily moving the injured person as it may worsen his condition. Also, don’t remove any puncturing agent in the client as it would promote blood loss. Kneel at the right side of the patient.

Check for responsiveness. Gently shake the person’s shoulders while asking “Are you all right?” in a loud and clear voice. If there is a response, CPR is no longer required. If there is no response, shout for help (or call the emergency hotline [112 by cellular phones in Europe and the UK and 999 in the UK] if alone) and begin to perform chest compression. Don’t check for a pulse anymore; begin with the compressions as it will further benefit the patient.

Promote circulation. Place the heel of your palm over the patient’s sternum, just above the xyphoid process, with the fingers interlaced. If the clothing is constricting or is interfering with your hands, open or cut it. Position your body directly over your hands, and use your body weight to do the compressions. Perform compressions at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. Each compression should have a depth of at least two inches and allow recoil before the next compression.

Open the airway. After 30 chest compressions, use the head-tilt chin-lift method by putting your hand on the person’s forehead and the other on his chin. If there is a suspected neck injury, don’t perform the chin-lift. Instead, just pull the jaw forward to open the airway.

Promote breathing. Completely seal the patient’s mouth using your own. Take a normal breath and slowly exhale it into the patient. Look for the rise in the patient’s chest; it will give you an idea if you’re doing the ventilation correctly. If not, perform it again. Give two breaths and perform 30 compressions again. Continue on doing the process until medical help arrives.

Correct and timely-given CPR can save a lot of lives so make sure you’re properly trained first before attempting to perform this procedure.